April 12, 2020

*Answered by: Jonathan Gorard*

## What existing approaches is the project closest to?

First and foremost (though it’s really an extension of the same project), Stephen Wolfram’s work from 2002 in *A New Kind of Science*. Other approaches that have definite similarities to certain aspects of our formalism include causal dynamical triangulation (which can be thought of as corresponding to a special case of our more topologically generic description of spacetime in terms of hypergraphs—namely the case in which spacetime is triangulated topologically into a simplicial complex of pentachora), loop quantum gravity (since Wolfram model evolutions can be thought of as corresponding to generalizations of spin foams in which spatial hyperedges are purely abstract, and, unlike in spin networks, do not have a compact Lie group structure explicitly defined), and twistor theory (the twistor correspondence space can be thought of as being a continuous model of the multiway causal graph, at least in certain idealized cases). The Relations to Other Approaches section of this Q&A gives more details. See also the Notes & Further References in Stephen Wolfram’s Technical Introduction.