March 13, 2020

*Answered by: Jonathan Gorard*

## What do your models imply regarding the black hole information paradox?

The maximum rate of quantum entanglement (i.e. the natural propagation velocity of geodesics in the multiway evolution graph) is, in general, much higher than the speed of light (i.e. the natural propagation velocity of geodesics in the purely relativistic causal graph); however this ceases to be the case in the presence of a sufficiently high mass density in spacetime (i.e. in the presence of a sufficiently high density of causal edges in the multiway causal graph), such as near a black hole.

Therefore, a black hole in the multiway causal graph may be characterized by the presence of two distinct horizons: a standard event horizon corresponding to regular causal disconnection, and an entanglement event horizon corresponding to multiway disconnection, which always lies strictly on the exterior of the causal event horizon. As such, from the point of view of an external observer in the multiway causal graph watching an infalling object to a black hole, the object will appear to “freeze” (due to quantum Zeno effects that are the multiway analog of time dilation) at the entanglement horizon, and will never get close to the true causal event horizon. Since Hawking radiation (which occurs as a consequence of non-convergent branch pairs in the multiway evolution graph) is emitted from the entanglement horizon and not the causal event horizon, the particles that get radiated from the black hole may be perfectly correlated with the information contained within the infalling object, without any apparent or actual violation of special relativity (since no information ever crossed a spacetime event horizon), thus resolving the black hole information paradox.

This resolution is formally quite similar to the standard resolution to the black hole information paradox implied by the holographic principle and the AdS/CFT duality.