String Substitution Systems The Phenomenon of Causal Invariance States Graphs Typical Multiway Graph Structures Testing for Causal Invariance The Frequency of Causal Invariance Events and Their Causal Relationships Causal Graphs for Particular Updating Sequences The Significance of Causal Invariance Causal Foliations and Causal Cones Causal Graphs for Infinite Evolutions Typical Causal Graphs Limits of Causal Graphs Foliations and Coordinates on Causal Graphs The Concept of Branchial Graphs Typical Forms of Branchial Graphs Foliations of the Multiway Graph and the Structure of Branchial Space The Relationship between Graphs, and the Multiway Causal Graph Weighted Multiway Graphs Effective Causal Invariance Generational Evolution